Primary Design Considerations

Parent Metal Analysis: Arc stud welding can only be considered if the parent metal is weldable. Proper results can be produced with standard techniques only when low carbon or low alloy steel or austenitic stainless steels are used as parent metals. Other steel alloys can be welded but may require heat treatment or other special techniques to develop full weld strength.

Brass, copper, and aluminum alloys can also be stud welded. However, brass, copper, and exotic metals are best welded using the CD method.

Because there are so many alloys, it is difficult to cover all variations here. When parent metal analysis is questionable, call or e-mail your MES representative for technical help.

Quite often, for instance, weld qualities can only be determined through actual mechanical testing of a prototype sample. We maintain facilities for this purpose, and your MES representative should be called upon to provide sampling and test data service whenever necessary.

Fastener Design Ratio:


In ARC stud welding, our experience has shown that to assure complete fastener strength development, the parent metal thickness should be at least 1/2 of the weld base diameter of the stud.

For applications where strength is not the primary requirement, the parent metal thickness may be reduced to a minimum of 1/5 the weld base diameter. By staying above this minimum ratio, you will get complete cross-sectional-area weld fusion without burn-through or excessive distortion of the parent metal.



The CD welding process has the benefit of being a strong, low penetrating weld, which allows welding to thin gauge material, with very low blemishing on the reverse side if the product is cosmetic.


Selecting the Proper Stud: It would be impossible to include specifications of all the various styles and sizes that have been produced and are readily available for your use. Therefore, you should not feel limited in choice to those shown throughout our site. In order to achieve the lowest fastener cost, the first consideration should always be given to:

Ordering Studs:  Follow “To Order” instructions.

  1. Standard Stud Types
  2. Standard Lengths and Diameters
  3. Standard Material Composition

Standard Studs: Each of the following specification sheets details stud styles that have been developed through a long history of usage and manufacturing experience. These specifications were developed to establish economical, useful, standard dimensions. The dimensional limits given do not, however, preclude our ability to manufacture stud welding fasteners with dimensions outside the established figures.

Special Studs: Most normal machining operations, cross drilling, slotting, bending, swaging, piercing, etc. are available in combination with many of the studs detailed on the specification sheets. Infinite styles of studs can be produced through these secondary machining operations. Depending upon the application, a special stud may provide even greater in-use economies than a standard stud. Consult your MES representative, it’s possible we may have already designed the “special” stud you require.